Data from Global Cancer Statistics 2020 shows that the combination of colon and rectum cancer holds for approximately 10% () and 9% () of all cancer incidence and death in the world respectively [1].
In Indonesia, colorectal cancer stands at rank 4th and 5th of the most incidence and deaths respectively in Indonesia. It holds approximately 8.4% () and 7.6% () of all cancer incidence and death in Indonesia respectively [2].
Whereas, data from the Jogja Cancer Registry indicate that CRC ranks as the second among the most frequently encountered cancer cases in Yogyakarta with cases from 2008-2019 [3].
A majority of CRC patients are diagnosed at advanced stages due to the difficulties in diagnosis even though early diagnosis plays a crucial role in determining the success of therapy [3].
However, current early screening methods have their own problems, especially at premalignant stages of CRC and its accessibility in rural areas [4].

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[1] Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, Bray F. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2021 May;71(3):209-49.
[2] Globocan 2020. Indonesia. World Health Organization; 2021 [cited 2023 September 27]. Available from:
[3] Jogja Cancer Registry. RKBR Maret 2022 – [Internet]. Jogja Cancer Registry. 2022 [cited 2023 May 5]. Available from:
[4] Burch JA, Soares-Weiser K, St John DJ, Duffy S, Smith S, Kleijnen J, Westwood M. Diagnostic accuracy of faecal occult blood tests used in screening for colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Journal of medical screening. 2007 Sep 1;14(3):132-7.
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