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From single-use plastics to critical medical equipment, the integration and heavy reliance on plastic in modern society is undeniable.

However, this dependency on plastic has triggered a cascade of concerns, including environmental pollution, health hazards, and resource shortages, all stemming from plastic manufacturing and usage.

An emerging alternative to conventional plastics is polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), also known as bioplastics. PHAs offer environmental advantages, such as emitting less CO2 during production, and degrading in just a few years without harm to the environment.

Nevertheless, the widespread adoption of PHA bioplastics in the market is hindered by high production costs, with 30% attributed to PHA extraction from cells. Conventional methods of PHA extraction, including enzymatic digestion and direct chemical extraction, are not only expensive but also toxic and harmful.