Cooling water usage of a company in GuangXi ShanDong
Cooling water usage time (months/year) 10 6
Total cooling water cost (million CNY/year) 9.2 6.5

The microbial fermentation factory faces thermal challenges of high temperatures in summer and heat generated by microbial metabolism. This leads to reduced production capacity and increased costs.

Extremophilic microorganisms and plants contain a amount of long-chain polyamines, such as thermospermine. This suggests that long-chain polyamines may play a crucial role in combating heat stress or other adversities.


We speculate that moderate expression of long-chain polyamines, such as thermospermine, in yeast could potentially enhance its thermal resistance and reduce the usage of cooling water in production, thereby creating greater economic benefits.

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